Tuesday, November 20, 2007

Vài con số về nhà tù Mỹ

Mỹ thường phê phán nhiều nước trên thế giới về chuyện thiếu "tự do". Mỗi khái niệm đều là tương đối và "tự do" cũng không ngoại lệ! Sau đây là vài con số về nhà tù ở Mỹ:

Theo con số của cục điều tra dân số Mỹ http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html ,dân số Mỹ hiện nay là khoảng 303 triệu, và dân số thế giới là 6 tỉ 632 triệu, nghĩa là dân số Mỹ bằng khoảng 1/22 dân số thế giới.

Theo báo cáo mới đây, số lượng tù nhân ở Mỹ là 2,2 triệu người, gần bằng 1/4 tổng số tù nhân trên thế giới.

Báo cáo này có nhắc tới trường hợp một phụ nữ ở Florida bị án tù hai năm vì quăng một ly cà-phê.

Số lượng tù liên bang của Mỹ là 1,5 triệu. Năm 1970, con số này là 196.429. Tù cấp tiểu bang là 750.000.

Ước lượng sẽ tăng thêm 192.000 trong 5 năm tới hay trung bình 38.400 mỗi năm. Cần thêm 27.5 tỉ để xây thêm và vận hành những nhà tù mới.

Với mức độ hiện nay, 1/3 người da đen, 1/6 người La-tin, 1/17 người da trắng nam sẽ ở tù qua trong đời họ. Số lượng nữ tù nhân hiện nay đang tăng nhanh nhất trong tất cả các nhóm tù nhân.


Reuters U.S. prison system a costly and harmful failure: report


By Randall Mikkelsen Mon Nov 19, 6:07 PM ET

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The number of people in U.S. prisons has risen eight-fold since 1970, with little impact on crime but at great cost to taxpayers and society, researchers said in a report calling for a major justice-system overhaul.


A 2004 file photo shows a guard at San Quentin Prison checking cell doors. The number of Americans in prison has risen eight-fold since 1970, with little impact on crime but at great cost to taxpayers and society, researchers said in a report calling for a major justice-system overhaul. (Clay McLachlan/Reuters)

The report on Monday cites examples ranging from former vice-presidential aide Lewis "Scooter" Libby to a Florida woman's two-year sentence for throwing a cup of coffee to make its case for reducing the U.S. prison population of 2.2 million -- nearly one-fourth of the world's total.

It recommends shorter sentences and parole terms, alternative punishments, more help for released inmates and decriminalizing recreational drugs. It said the steps would cut the prison population in half, save $20 billion a year and ease social inequality without endangering the public.

But the recommendations run counter to decades of broad U.S. public and political support for getting tough on criminals through longer, harsher prison terms and to the Bush administration's anti-drug and strict-sentencing policies.

"President (George W.) Bush was right," in commuting Libby's perjury sentence this year as excessive, the report said. But he should also have commuted the sentences of hundreds of thousands of other Americans, it said.

"Our contemporary laws and justice system practices exacerbate the crime problem, unnecessarily damage the lives of millions of people (and) waste tens of billions of dollars each year," it said.

The report was produced by the JFA Institute, a Washington criminal-justice research group, and its authors included eight criminologists from major U.S. public universities. It was funded by the Rosenbaum Foundation and by financier and political activist George Soros' Open Society Institute.

The Justice Department dismissed the recommendations and cited findings that about 25 percent of the violent-crime drop in the 1990s can be attributed to increases in imprisonment.

"The United States is experiencing a 30-year low in crime, in large part due to the tough enforcement actions we've taken in the last decade," department spokesman Peter Carr said.


But there are signs of shifting attitudes on sentencing policies. Some financially strapped states are shortening sentences and Congress is moving to pass increased help for released prisoners, said Executive Director Marc Mauer of the Sentencing Project, which has advocated alternatives to long sentences.

"Compared to where we were in the mid-(19)90s, it's been a very significant change," Mauer said.

More than 1.5 million people are now in U.S. state and federal prisons, up from 196,429 in 1970, the report said. Another 750,000 people are in local jails. The U.S. incarceration rate is the world's highest, followed by Russia, according to 2006 figures compiled by Kings College in London.

Although the U.S. crime rate began declining in the 1990s it is still about the same as in 1973, the JFA report said. But the prison population has soared because sentences have gotten longer and people who violate parole or probation, even with minor lapses, are more likely to be imprisoned.

"The system is almost feeding on itself now. It takes years and years and years to get out of this system and we do not see any positive impact on the crime rates," JFA President James Austin, a co-author of the report, told a news conference.

The report said the prison population is projected to grow by another 192,000 in five years, at a cost of $27.5 billion to build and operate additional prisons.

At current rates, one-third of all black males, one-sixth of Latino males, and one in 17 white males will go to prison during their lives. Women represent the fastest-growing segment of the prison population, the report said.

"The massive incarceration of young males from mostly poor- and working-class neighborhoods, and the taking of women from their families and jobs, has crippled their potential for forming healthy families and achieving economic gains," it said.

(Editing by David Alexander and Cynthia Osterman)

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